Born in Trivigno, Potenza, Basilicata, Robert Vignola was raised in upstate New York. He began his film career as an actor with Kalem Studios in silent films in 1906 and in 1911 directed the first of his eighty-seven films.
As an actor, one of Vignola's most notable film roles was as "Judas Iscariot" in 1912's From the Manger to the Cross. As a director, he is probably best remembered for 1922's big-budget epic, When Knighthood Was in Flower and the 1934 production of The Scarlet Letter.
Robert Vignola died in Hollywood, California in 1953.